Physical Geography

In Uncategorized on 28 March 2008 by geografika

The area near the surface of the earth can be divided up into four inter-connected “geo-spheres:” the lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere. Scientists can classify life and material on or near the surface of the earth to be in any of these four spheres.


The names of the four spheres are derived from the Greek words for stone (litho), air (atmo), water (hydro), and life (bio).


The lithosphere is the solid, rocky crust covering entire planet. This crust is inorganic and is composed of minerals. It covers the entire surface of the earth from the top of Mount Everest to the bottom of the Mariana Trench.


The hydrosphere is composed of all of the water on or near the earth. This includes the oceans, rivers, lakes, and even the moisture in the air. Ninety-seven percent of the earth’s water is in the oceans. The remaining three percent is fresh water; three-quarters of the fresh water is solid and exists in ice sheets


The biosphere is composed of all living organisms. Plants, animals, and one-celled organisms are all part of the biosphere. Most of the planet’s life is found from three meters below the ground to thirty meters above it and in the top 200 meters of the oceans and seas.


The atmosphere is the body of air which surrounds our planet. Most of our atmosphere is located close to the earth’s surface where it is most dense. The air of our planet is 79% nitrogen and just under 21% oxygen; the small amount remaining is composed of carbon dioxide and other gasses.

All four spheres can be and often are present in a single location. For example, a piece of soil will of course have mineral material from the lithosphere. Additionally, there will be elements of the hydrosphere present as moisture within the soil, the biosphere as insects and plants, and even the atmosphere as pockets of air between soil pieces.


3 Responses to “Physical Geography”

  1. I’m suprise because now, there is mediation to comunication inter geography’s teacher, one apart here. Very necessary, if we have some information about something relation contain of geography. I wish, the all geografer’s must to use this blog!!

  2. Tuan Mustar yth,
    sejauh ini geografi telah tampil sbg mt pelajaran IPS yang menakutkan. sedikit diminati anak karena merasa sulit dalam memahami istilah-istlah geo, belum lagi muatan materi yang ngayayyay,,,,loba teuing. kegiatan MGMP nya lebih ceremonial ketimbang mengkaji hal-hal yang signifikan. bagaimana mungkin banyak para senior yang telah berpengalaman namun tak terakomodasi dalam wadah MGMP?

  3. supados tong ngayayay geura ajak barudak teh sekali2 di hari libur, bertualang ke alam, ke kampung2, jelaskan semua fenomena alam dan manusia yang terkait di dalamnya…anak lebih terkesan pada pengalaman langsung darpd harus membaca. paling tidak perbanyaklah gambar, slide atau kalau mungkin film2 yang terkait …

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: